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What is LED?

LED – light emitting diode, under the “Electroluminescent (EL) lamp” category, was invented in the 1960s. Its current flows from the p-side or anode to the n-side or cathode, but not in the reverse direction. When an electron meets a hole, it fails into a lower energy level and release energy in the form of a photon (light).

Why LED?

Simply the greenest and cleanest light source.

Advantages

  • Long lifespan approximately 50,000 hours
  • Flexible application size and design
  • No mercury, no light pollution, no noise
  • Directional lighting and instant on
  • High energy efficient and less heat
  • Variety of color choice and wide range of correlated color temperature (CCT) choice
  • Available for integrated dimming, motion, and network control

Disadvantages

  • Expensive
  • Low lumen output
  • Heat dissipation – over heat
  • Lighting distribution – spread evenly
  • Design limitation to its size, weight, driver, and performance of LED chipset

Light Sources

Natural

  • Fire
  • Astronomical Objects
  • Bioluminescence
  • Lighting
  • Aurorae
  • Airglow
  • Triboluminescence
  • Magma
  • Plasma

Direct Chemical:

  • Chemoluminescence
  • Fluorescence
  • Phosphorescence

Combustion-Based

  • Acetylence/Carbide lamps
  • Argon Flash
  • Betty lamp
  • Butter lamp
  • Candles
  • Flash powder
  • Gas lighting
  • Gas mantle
  • Kerosene lamps
  • Lanterns
  • Limelights
  • Oil lamps
  • Rushlights
  • Safety lamps
  • Torches

Electric Powered Incandescent Lamps

Conventional

  • Light bulb
  • Flashlight
  • Halogen
  • Globar
  • Nernst

Electroluminescent (EL) Lamps

  • LED
  • OLED
  • PLED
  • SSL LED
  • Electroluminescent sheet
  • Electroluminescent wires

Gas Discharge Lamps

  • Fluorescent lamps
  • Compact fluorescent lamps
  • Black light
  • Inductive lighting
  • Hollow cathode lamps
  • Neon and argon lamps
  • Plasma
  • Xenon flash lamps

High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

  • Carbon arc lanps
  • ceramic discharge metal halide lanps
  • Hydrargyrum medium-arc iodide lamps
  • Mercury-vapor lamps
  • Metal halide lamps
  • Sodium vapor lamps
  • Xenon arc lamps

Others

Annihiation, radiation, bremsstrahlung, explosion, fusor, hybrid solar lighting, lasers, nonlinear optics, sonoluminescence, sulfur lamps, synchrontron lights, scintillation, supercontinuum, tanning lamps, LIFI, and allows for many processes that create visible light from other wavelengths of light which may or may not be visible